The Chemicaloid Project (ケミカロイド計画 Kemikaroido Keikaku?) is a project created by the STUDY Corporation intended to replace the Power Curriculum Program Academy City's system to create espers through the creation of artificial humans known as Chemicaloids.
Chemicaloid (ケミカロイド Kemikaroido?) is the term used to refer to the artificial humans created by STUDY. The Chemicaloids are exactly what their name entails, they are artificially created through chemicals, including non-naturally occurring ones as well. Despite this, their appearance and their bodily functions of Chemicaloids no different from regular humans. However, as part of their metabolic processes, their cells naturally secrete a poison that if left unattended it will accumulate in their bodies, disrupting their organ functions, making them ill or even killing them. This is depicted with the Chemicaloids becoming flushed red in the face, feverish, and fainting. The only remedy for this is STUDY's manufacturing of special lollipops for them, which contain a compound that neutralizes the poison.
This condition is mentioned by the Heaven Canceller as either a technical problem or intentional. With regards to the latter, this may be intentional as Haruki does mention that they consider their Chemicaloids as "products", and as they are valuable to them they may want a safety precaution for their secrets from getting out.
It is unknown how they were formed, but the Testament was used to input information into them, and as a consequence, having certain biases in the focus of their knowledge. Although this is only their initial state like the Sister clones, according to Misaka 10032. They may change when in time if exposed to new things like the Sisters. The similarities of the biases between the Chemicaloids and the Sisters are due to the fact that STUDY used the research of Nunotaba Shinobu, the same person who supervised the use of Testament on the Sisters during the Radio Noise Project, as their "base program" for their autonomic nervous functions.
It is unknown how STUDY managed to gain esper powers. Regardless, only two were ever created by them: Janie and Febrie. The former was created first and is the core of the Silent Party, while her younger twin was Febrie, her spare. It is implied that Janie and Febrie only gained human consciousness once she became involved in the project.
Aritomi Haruki is a student, a genius even by Academy City's standards, realized and became sickened by the city's focus on espers despite his own achievements. None has yet come against that unfair system, where he thought, that despite how much effort one puts into their studies, how many papers one publishes, only espers are ever recognized by the city.
One day, Aritomi thought about the uncertainty of the nature of esper power development, which is largely determined at birth, and how the production of high-level espers are based purely on chance. This uncertainty was something that Aritomi decides to eliminate by making an esper from scratch (i.e. making an artificial human being that possesses esper abilities). A new method of producing espers based on a completely different approach, a more reliable method to produce espers of a uniform quality, and as many as anyone could ever want, thus begins the Chemicaloid Project.
Haruki joins up with several like minds to come with the plan, and presented it to underground organizations to gain their support. However, they did not see its worth, and among them, Kihara Gensei, whose Level 6 Shift Project would have become a competitor against their project, called their plans a mere "summer school project." Dismayed by this, they determined to do the project on their own. Thus begins the STUDY Corporation, and with their technology supplied Anti-Skill of their tools, manufactured drugs and other chemicals of a wide spectrum. Most likely, these are fronts to fund their project.